International Research Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga <p>International Research Journal of Ayurveda &amp; Yoga (IRJAY) is a monthly (12 issues per year ) online peer reviewed international Journal. It is an open access online journal. This journal provide platform for PG scholars teachers and researchers to publish their good &amp; quality work in the field of Ayurveda, Yoga and Integrative medicine. IRJAY is developed for the researchers, scholars, scientists, post-docs and students who are seeking a platform for publishing their research work. This is the journal advised and developed by eminent and internationally renowned Ayurvedic professors, scientists and scholars. The journal aimed to publish high quality review articles, authentic research work,clinical trials and new innovative ideas.</p> <p>IRJAY confirms its adherence with guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (<a href=""></a>) from ICMJE and Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA; (<a href=""></a>).</p> en-US International Research Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga 2581-785X Phytochemical Evaluation of Different Plant Sources of Vaasa (Adhatoda Species) <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Vaasa, a valuable medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic medicine, has experienced growing demand, resulting in the availability of both wild and cultivated sources. Experts have identified morphotypes of Adhatoda species in Kerala, indicating variations in active constituents and clinical efficacy. This study specifically focused on assessing physicochemical parameters and phytochemical constituents of different sources of Vaasa.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The parameters such as foreign matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water insoluble ash, moisture content, volatile oil content, fiber content, tannin content, sugar content, phenol content, pH, qualitative analysis of ash, extractive values, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, phenols, carbohydrates, and proteins were estimated in different sources of Vaasa (Adhatoda species): A1 (Valiya adalodakam), A2 (Cheriya adalodakam), A3 (Adhatoda species - Vasika), A4 (Adhatoda species - Ajagandhi), and A5 (Adhatoda beddomei C B Clarke).</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The results revealed comparable physicochemical parameters between sample A1 and Adhatoda vasica Nees, as well as between sample A5 and Adhatoda beddomei C B Clarke, as documented in authentic texts and research articles. In qualitative analysis, no differences were found between samples A2, A3, A4, and A5 compared to sample A1. The study revealed quantitative differences in physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation among the powdered leaf samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Qualitative analysis did not reveal significant differences among samples A2, A3, A4, and A5 compared to sample A1. However, quantitative variations were observed in both physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the powdered leaf sample. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding and identification of various Vaasa sources in Ayurvedic medicine, essential for quality control and further research.</p> Teenu Tomy P. Y. Ansary Sara Moncy Oommen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 01 07 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61101 HPTLC Fingerprinting Profile of Root of Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The root of Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) possesses high therapeutic value and is used in many conditions such as Gulma (abdominal tumor), Pandu (anemia), Yakrit roga (liver disorders), Pleeha roga (splenic disorders), and Hridroga (cardiac disorders). But, before internal administration, it is essential to confirm the drug’s authenticity and quality. Obtaining authentic chromatographic fingerprints that accurately reflect the pharmacologically active and chemically distinctive components of the drugs is essential. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting helps to know the authenticity and identity of the drug. It is highly useful to avoid the unnecessary usage of adulterated drugs. Detection of the marker compound is essential to know the mechanism of action a drug in particular diseases and systems of the body.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In the present study, methanolic extract of root powder of B. diffusa Linn. was selected. Solvent system used was toluene, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (5:4:0.5). After development, the plate was examined under ultraviolet light 254 nm, 366 nm, and after derivatization in white light.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> While analyzing the HPTLC fingerprinting profile of Punarnava (B. diffusa Linn.), at 254 nm, it showed six peaks and at 366 nm, it showed ten peaks. At 254 nm, highest peak was obtained at Rf 0.03 with a total area of 4390.5 (AU). At 366 nm, highest peak obtained at Rf 0.02 with a total area of 7211.2 (AU).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> For identification of medicinal plants, the HPTLC fingerprinting profile is a crucial component of the standardization of herbal drugs. At 254 nm, it shows 6 peaks and at 366 nm, it shows 10 peaks.</p> Divya Raj P. Y. Ansary Sara Moncy Ommen V. V. Shincymol Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 08 12 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61102 A Comparative Analysis of Choorna and Bhavitha Choorna of Flower Buds of Japa (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.) through High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography <p><strong>Introduction:</strong>High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is nowadays adopted by the major pharmacopoeias of the world for analysis of herbal drugs and preparations. The current use is generally limited to the visual observation of the fingerprints for identification and detection of adulterations and falsifications. It makes sense to use HPTLC to expand chromatographic fingerprints to identify the main active ingredients in medicinal plants. Compared to thin layer chromatography, the separation and resolution are significantly superior, and the outcomes are far more consistent and repeatable.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Japakusuma mukula (flower buds of Japa) which is botanically identified as Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. contains various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, amino acids, lipids, sesquiterpene, quinones, and naphthalene groups. HPTLC fingerprinting profile of choorna (powder) and bhavitha choorna (triturated powder) of flower buds of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. is demonstrated in methanolic extract in this study and bands are analyzed at 254 nm and 366 nm using CAMAG Linomat V Automatic Sample Spotter. The peaks and area are compared.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> Similarity in the peak areas even in different Max Rf values, it could be inferred that the phytoconstituent obtained in both conditions will be having similarity. Since the bhavitha choorna possess, the greater number of large value peak areas in both the wavelength of visualization, it is clear that bhavitha choorna is more potent in comparison with choorna.</p> S. Smrithi V. V. Shincymol P. Y. Ansary Sara Monsy Oommen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 13 19 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61103 A Comparative Pharmaceutical Study of Aranaladi Taila and Khajita Aranaladi Taila <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sneha Kalpana is a group of preparations of medicated ghrita (ghee) and taila (oils). The use of various Samskaras allows for the transformation of the properties of ingredients into the Sneha Dravya. One such samskara known by the name Manthana Samskara aids in the proper mixing of two substances as well as the incorporation of Sheeta Guna into the preparation and make it a homogenous mixture. This helps in improving the stability of the final preparation. Aranaladi taila mentioned in Sahasrayoga is an effective oil preparation for the treatment of Vatarakta associated with daha and jwara.</p> Rekhasree Pillai NEETHU P V. K. Sanila Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 20 24 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61104 High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography Fingerprinting Analysis of Punarnavadi Kwatha <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Punarnavadi kwatha is one among the commonly used medicine in Ayurvedic practice, mentioned in Chakradatta in sopha chikitsa. Main indications of Punarnavadi kwatha are Sarvanga sopha (generalised oedema), Udara (ascites), Kasa (cough), Soolam (colicky pain), and Swasa (dyspnoea) associated with Pandu (anaemia). For the purpose of quality assurance and uniformity, scientific verification of Ayurvedic medications is important. Usage of modern analytical techniques helps in the proper authentication of medicines. In the present study, highperformance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of Punarnavadi kwatha aimed to assess the different phytoconstituents.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Methanolic extract of Punarnavadi kwatha was subjected to HPTLC fingerprinting using the solvent system toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (6:3:0.5). Toluene is a least polar solvent, ethyl acetate is mid polar solvent and formic acid is highly polar so in this solvent system, maximum separation of compounds took place.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The number of peaks obtained at visualization 254 nm was 8 and total area of compounds in is 30309.5. Visualization at 366 nm, number of peaks was 12 and total area is 42473.2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus, the study revealed that HPTLC fingerprinting of formulations can be used in the quality control of ayurvedic medicaments. The maximum separation of compounds occurred at this solvent system.</p> Resmi Vijayan P. Y. Ansary Sara Moncy Oommen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 25 29 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61105 Traditional Sutika Paricharya Practices Prevalent in Kozhikode District of Kerala <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Motherhood is the most gifted prize in the world as it is the means of transfer of human generation. Sutika kala (period of puerperium) is the period of happiness as well as the period of complications also. The puerperium is the period from the end of the third stage of labor until most of the patient’s organs have returned to the pre-pregnant state. Proper paricharya is necessary for the maintenance of the health of the puerperal women. There are some traditional practices for the health promotion of Sutika which are prevalent in Kozhikode district of Kerala. The objective of this study is to reveal the scientific background of the traditional Sutika paricharya practices prevalent in Kozhikode.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The data regarding the Sutika paricharya were collected from the Ayurvedic practitioners from Kozhikode through a Telephonic Survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. Data will be analyzed scientifically and conclusions will be drawn.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The Traditional Sutika Paricharya practices prevalent in Kozhikode district of Kerala includes the use of Nadi Kashaya, Arista, Nalpamaradi Vethuvellam (water used for bath prepared from Nalpamaradi drugs), Mukkudi, Ullichoru (special rice prepared with onion and its varieties), Pettu lehyam, Thengin pookkuladi lehyam (Avaleha prepared with Inflorescence of coconut), and Navadhanya powder. The details regarding its preparation, uses, effects, and its scientific background were validated and conclusions were drawn.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The time-tested and validated scientific practices should be added and updated to the knowledge<br>database of Sutika practices in the Ayurveda system in India</p> P. Aswathy S. Aravind Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 30 34 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61106 Conceptual Study of Trimarma W. S. R. to Sirah Marma <p>The science of Marma (vital point), i.e., Marma Vijyaniyam is an extraordinary and dynamic part mentioned in classical texts of Ayurveda that has tremendous value while performing surgery. Marma is such an imperative and unique principle of Ayurveda. Trimarma is the basic organs of the body representing the three different systems – nervous, cardiovascular, and urinary system. Trimarma is gaining importance as “tripod of life” because they are more Sadyopranahara Marma than other Marma. Sirah Marma is considered first because trauma to the head causes disturbance in respiratory, circulatory, and temperature-regulating center in the brain area and may lead to unconsciousness and death. Charak stated that Prana is situated in Siras which is also called Uttamangam due to its control over all the Indriya (Sense). In this article, an effort is made to compile and analyze the fundamental concept of Trimarma.</p> Mritunjay Gaun Vikas Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 35 37 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61107 A Conceptual Study and Significance of Oja According to Ayurved <p>Ayurveda, renowned as the science of life, is dedicated to preserving the well-being of living organisms by both preventing and treating illnesses. Central to Ayurvedic treatment (Chikitsa) is principles outlined in its literature, including the concepts of Ojas and Vyadhikshamatva. Ojas, situated in the heart (hridaya), extend throughout the body, governing its processes. The presence of Ojas is fundamental for the sustenance of life, aligning various bodily states, and preventing destruction. This principle is crucial in the body’s defense against disease-causing agents, halting pathogenesis. Ayurvedic literature explicates Ojas as essence of all Dhatus, representing Bala (strength) of\ each body part. Ojas is likened to Bala, providing physical, mental, and immunological resistance&nbsp; against ailments.<br>Vyadhikshamatva, the body’s capacity to ward off illness, parallels the contemporary concept of immunity in science.<br>Ojas, as a vital force, ensures the body’s survival and alignment of various states when present. It serves as the<br>cornerstone for the body’s resilience against diseases. Vyadhikshamatva, akin to modern immunity, safeguards<br>against harmful infections. The alignment of Ayurvedic principles with contemporary scientific concepts establishes<br>the relevance of Ojas and Vyadhikshamatva in maintaining health and preventing diseases. Recognizing Ojas as<br>the essence of Dhatus underscores its role in physical, mental, and immunological strength. Incorporating these<br>principles into health applications, particularly in addressing immune disorders, can offer holistic approaches in<br>line with Ayurvedic wisdom. Understanding and harnessing Ojas and Vyadhikshamatva could prove instrumental in<br>developing Ayurvedic remedies for enhancing immunity, promoting overall well-being</p> Indiwar Yadav Smita Kadu Sanjay Kumar Verma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 38 41 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61108 The Role of Yoga in Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy: A Review of Current Literature <p>The role of yoga in patients undergoing radiotherapy(RT) for cancer treatment has garnered increasing interest recently. RT can result in significant side effects, such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, and decreased physical function, and yoga has shown potential in alleviating these effects. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the potential benefits of yoga as a supportive care strategy for patients undergoing anticancer RT. We discuss relevant randomised studies and evidence supporting the effectiveness of yoga interventions, focusing on their impact in stress reduction, mood improvement, symptom management and overall well-being. By incorporating yoga into the treatment plan, healthcare professionals can enhance the holistic care of cancer patients and potentially improve treatment outcomes</p> Selvaraj Giridharan Rajanee Bhana Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 42 48 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61109 A Comprehensive Review of Urdhwaga Amlapitta <p>Amlapitta is one of the most common and familiar diseases of Annavaha srotas in the present era. In this modernized and competitive world, each person is living an unhealthy and stressful life. Materialistic lifestyles provoke people to run behind a busy and stressful schedule. The new lifestyles toward which modernized population gets attracted are far away from the dincharya, ratricharya, and ritucharya along with aahar vihar as suggested in samhitas which is necessity for a healthy life. These days people are easily attracted towards the junk foods along with huge changes in their dietary pattern leading to Amlapitta which itself is a very troublesome disease and can give rise to many serious complications if not treated in time. The cardinal features of amlapitta are avipaka (indigestion), hritakantha daha (heart and throat burn) and tikta- amlodgara(sour and bitter belching). Sign and symptoms of Amlapitta are in<br>resemblance with gastritis, hyperacidity, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer etc. modern text have different pathophysiology’s to aforementioned gastro-intestinal diseases. Whereas in ayurveda all of these can be solely studied under the concept of amlapitta. Compared to modern management, ayurvedic management of the disease is much bigger hope Hence, the main aim is to understand the concept and line of treatment in accordance with each disease representation</p> Neetu Chauhan Ashish Mehta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 49 54 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61110 Role of Bhramari Pranayama on Health: A Conceptual Study <p>Yoga is a system of physical and mental exercise designed thousands of years ago to balance and unite the mind, body, and spirit. Yoga is essentially a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science, which focuses on bringing harmony between mind and body. Pranayama is the complete breathing exercise which is the part of Yoga. In all Pranayama, the breath plays an important role. Bhramari pranayama is the excellent breathing exercise for releasing agitation, frustration, and anger. It is the best breathing exercise in calming mind which promotes the good sleep. People with insomnia may have trouble falling asleep, many awakening during the night, with difficulty going back to sleep, fitful sleep, and daytime drowsiness. Sleep serves a critical role in health and well-being. Sleep is not just a time to rest our mind; our bodies need it, too. A lack of sleep can cause a bunch of health issues, such as higher blood sugar levels, liver problems, weight gain, and severs depression; other serious diseases; and illnesses. Therefore, it is being realized that it might be possible to exploring the role of above given Bhramari Pranayama on health.</p> Mahesh Kumar Pramod Kumar Mishra Swati Alha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 55 57 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61111 Curd: A Nutraceutical Treasure with Time-Honored and Scientifically Supported Health Benefits <p>Curd, integral to Indian culinary heritage, stands out for both its delectable taste and potent medicinal properties. Positioned as a key player in the nutraceutical landscape, its health benefits are meticulously explored, encompassing diverse curd types, their sources, tastes, and applications in medicine. Curd’s unique attributes, including its sweetishsour taste, hot potency, and sour post-digestive taste, contribute to its distinct qualities. Influenced by factors such as milk type, fermentation process, and milking conditions, curd’s properties impact relishing quality, promotion of body tissues, digestive power, and strength. Insights into different curd types reveal varied effects, from bovine milk-derived curd being demulcent and culturally significant to goat’s milk curd pacifying Kapha and Pitta, aiding digestion, and holding potential benefits for various conditions. Buffalo’s milk curd, with a sweet aftertaste, exhibits spermatogenic properties and balances Vata and Pitta while enhancing Kapha. Exploring diverse properties of curd varieties highlights unique effects, such as well-strained curd alleviating Vata, enhancing Kapha, and being demulcent and nourishing. Curd from boiled milk contributes to taste, dhatus, metabolic power, and strength. However, responsible consumption is vital, as daily intake may lead to adverse effects. Guidelines recommend judicious addition of adjuvants to curd for dietary and medicinal purposes. In conclusion, curd, with its historical and nutraceutical significance, remains a dietary treasure in Indian culture, aligning with modern scientific research and Ayurvedic wisdom for a health-conscious lifestyle. This comprehensive exploration delves into the nutraceutical value of diverse curd types, considering their sources, tastes, and applications in external and internal medicine.</p> Geethu Mohan Sailekha P Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 58 60 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61112 A Comprehensive Review of Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema from an Ayurveda Point of View <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Diabetes and other related disorders, such as hypertension, are involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR), a chronic, progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature that threatens vision. The retinal pre-capillary arterioles, capillaries, and venules are impacted by DR. Hyperglycemia damages capillary walls, endothelial cells, retinal cells, and capillary pericytes. It also thickens the capillary basement membrane. The blood-retina barrier is broken down by microangiopathy, which can result in retinal edema, bleeding, lipid leakage (hard exudates), micro-aneurysms, hemorrhages, ischemia, and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Ayurveda classical texts along with the internet sources such as Google Scholar and PubMed were reviewed upon to collect the literature available as per the aims of the present article.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion:</strong> In Ayurveda, DR can be understood as Pramehajanya Timira. Due to prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycemia, two types of pathology in Madhumeha: Dhatukshayajanya and Avaranajanya play a crucial role in the development of DR. Dhatus are expelled from the body in Dhatukshaya, which leads to several pathogenic events and the development of DME. Attipravritti, Sanga, Siragranthi, and Vimarga Gamana are the four varieties of Srotodusti that are known to be important in the development of DR and macular edema.</p> Ankur Tripathi Shamsa Fiaz Swati Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 6 11 61 64 10.47223/IRJAY.2023.61113